CRA (Community Risk Assessment) is a participatory process for assessing hazards, vulnerabilities, risks, ability to cope, preparing coping strategies and finally preparing a risk reduction options implementation plan by the local community. CRA uses scientific information and predictions and participatory discourses to identify, analyse and evaluate risk environment of a particular community, reach consensus amongst the community on actions that are needed to manage the risk environment. The method recognizes that the vulnerability, loss, reduction or mitigation strategy and coping mechanism vary from community to community and group to group (women, person with disability, landless, farmers‐fisher folks, etc) of a same community. So it ensures representation of professional, community and other groups and that their points of views are reflected. CRA encourages community participants to respect others’ concerns.
A flowchart below shows the CRA process sequentially.
Rural people, especially the poor, landless, fisher‐farmers, women and disable are highly vulnerable to hazards. The increasing frequency of hazards and subsequent loss of lives and resources makes them more vulnerable.
Government agencies in Bangladesh are central to any hazard response and risk reduction activities. There are also many national, international and UN organizations involved in hazard response and risk reduction initiatives, which aim to benefit the poor and other vulnerable groups.
CRA will be an appropriate method for all these organizations. CRA can ensure effective participation of vulnerable communities to achieve their risk reduction goals.
It is expected that organizations involved in similar types of activities will be benefited using CRA.
Uses of CRA
CRA is a comprehensive method to be used by organisations involved in hazard management and risk reduction activities particularly the CDMP and its partners where participation is a central consideration. It is also relevant to organizations involved in community based planning and management.
Participants of CRA
Participation of both primary and secondary stakeholders of any locality is considered important and essential in CRA. Primary stakeholders are those who reside within the locality and are directly impacted by any hazards (e.g. women, disable, farmers, fishers, landless). Secondary stakeholders may not be directly impacted but are involved in providing support to them, and they may have some influence (e.g. administrative, legal) or be affected (either positively or negatively) by decisions made by primary stakeholders. Participation of secondary stakeholders in CRA is therefore very important.