Disaster Management: Conceptual Framework

Disaster management is the process of fighting against disaster. It builds up capacity and decreases vulnerability. It has a regulatory framework. The framework works in pre, during and post disaster period.

The framework ensure effective, quick, flexible coordinating and collaborating management. This plan is applicable in national, international, society and community.

Disaster Management Conceptual Framework
Figure: Disaster Management Conceptual Framework

Time Period of Conceptual Framework

As we can see according to disaster period and disaster cycle the framework is constructed. There are 3 time period. They are:

  1. Pre-Disaster
  2. During Disaster
  3. Post-Disaster


In pre-disaster period 2 phase are included mitigation and preparedness. In during disaster response from government or various organization occurs and recovery phase included in post-disaster period. All these phases description is given below:

1. Mitigation

Mitigation is the measures of reducing the effects of disasters before the disaster occurs. It is the initiative disaster management approach before the occurrence of disaster. It includes 3 phases:

a) DRR (Disaster Risk Reduction)

Disaster Risk Reduction is the process of identifying, analyzing, assessing the hazard, its risk, vulnerability and reducing the risk, vulnerability. With several assessment and approaches it is performed. It increases capacity and decreases vulnerability by reducing risk.

b) Capacity Building

This step government, NGO and several national, international organization work to build up capacity of people who are at risk and decrease their vulnerability. This capacity is build up by creating awareness, social events, news and information dissemination etc.

c) Adaptation

It is the process of coping with the environment. It is the way by which people are being used to survive in reverse environment. Such as: Climate change adaptation.

2. Preparedness

Preparedness is the emergency precautions and planning which is taken before the occurrence of disaster thus it cannot effect so much.

a) Planning

In the planning phase organization and government make a proper emergency plan that how they respond when the disaster occurs. The manage available transport, relief to fight against disaster.

b) Early Warning

It is the warning phase to aware people about upcoming disaster by using the communication and technology. This warning information is given after forecasting and analyzing weather, climate, location data etc.

c) Coordination

It is the integration of national, international, community and society based all kind of organizations to work for disaster management. It helps to integrate several organizations and makes among different organizations.

During Disaster


In this phase government and several organizations respond to disaster affected people with all kinds of facilities thus they can survive. The main responsibility in that time is to rescue the affected people and give them relief.

a) Collaboration

It is the systematic process of working several organizations with each other. They cooperate each other to achieve the goal and help the vulnerable people.

b) Communication, Networking & Transportation

Communication is a vital part of response system in disaster management. Transportation and networking are integrated part of it. With the help of science and technology communication is getting much easier day by day. Quick and effective communication system can reduce the disaster effect so much. There are several tools make a great impact in networking system like GPS, GIS, other remote sensing tools etc.

Post Disaster


After the dangerous effect of disaster people have not enough capacity to recover their condition like before. Then it is important to help them for reconstructing their lives and livings.

a) Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation is very important after disaster period to return their normal life. This time the vulnerable people need physical and mental support. Rehabilitation can be structural and non-structural. This phase main thing is to ensure people both economic and mental (advise, counseling etc.) support.

b) Reconstruction

Reconstruction is the final step of disaster management. Restoration and recreation of the settlements, infrastructures, houses etc. like before thus the community, society and individual can regain their settlements are the main process of this phase.