Mitigation Approaches

Mitigation means reducing risk of loss from the occurrence of any undesirable event.

In other words, mitigation is the elimination or reduction of the frequency, magnitude, or severity of exposure to risks, or minimization of the potential impact of a threat or warning.

Mitigation describes any type of action that is used to reduce the severity of a negative consequence of some kind. It can be used when referring to the reduction of seriousness, painfulness, gravity, force, and grief, as well as anything one might consider negative or weighty. It might be used as a law term, an environmental safety term and in other fields that deal with negative situations.

Disaster Mitigation Tool Kit

Kits to Sustain Everyday Life in the event of a disaster

We are giving information for an ideal kit that might be useful to disaster affected people. However, preparation for this should be done before hand. The following kits are suggested in places where people might not have ready access to many essential supplies for everyday life as preparation to a disaster:

Health Kit

  • hand towel
  • washcloth
  • hair comb, regular size (not pocket)
  • nail file or nail clipper
  • bath-size bar of soap in wrapper
  • toothbrush in sealed package
  • large tube of toothpaste
  • 6 adhesive bandages (such as Band-aids)

Wrap the brand-new items in the new hand towel, tie it with string or yarn, and place inside a sealed, one-litre plastic bag with a zipper closure.

First Aid Medicine Kit

  • Sterile Gauze Pads:(4×4) 50 Pads
  • Adhesive Tape:6 Rolls or more
  • Triple Antibiotic Topical Ointment: 4 Tubes (I oz tubes) Example: Neosporin Ointment
  • Aspirin:325 mg (5 gr) tablets
  1. Ferrous Sulfate Tablets 500 Tablets of 325 mg
  1. Children’s Multivitamins with Iron Chewable Tablets 500 Tablets
  2. Adult Multivitamins with Iron Tablets 500 Tablets
  3. Children’s Acetaminophen Chewable Tablets 300 Tablets of 80mg.

 Acetaminophen for Adults–pain reliever

  1. Antacid –for treatment of upset stomach / heartburn
  2. Mebendazole or Thiabendazole –for intestinal worm infection
  3. Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim –antibacterial for adults and children
  4. Tetmosol Soap –for treatment of scabies for adults and children
  5. Oral Rehydration Salts –to combat dehydration for adults and children
  6. Promethazine –for treatment of nausea
  7. Metronidazole –for treatment of intestinal amebiasis (amebic dysentery)
  8. Chlorhexidine –antiseptic for adults and children
  9. Tolnaftate 1% Antifungal Cream –for skin infections for adults and children
  10. Rolled Bandages –for first aid applications

Kit for Kids

Kids suffer much during a disaster as they are unable to do their own work. They need others help. Their kits are important to maintain as they catch diseases quickly. Kits with the basic supplies every baby need. Please be sure that all items are NEW!

  • 6 cloth diapers
  • 2 shirts
  • 2 baby wash cloths
  • 2 gowns
  • 2 diaper pins
  • 1 sweater
  • 2 receiving blankets

Bundle the items inside one of the receiving blankets and secure it with diaper pins.

Domestic Kit

The following kits are recommended following a natural disaster. Bedding Pack

  • 2 flat double-bed sheets
  • 2 pillow cases
  • 2 pillows

Other necessities:

Linen (new only)

  • Sheets
  • Towels
  • Blankets
  • Pillows

Cleaning Utilities

These resources enable people to begin the overwhelming job of cleaning up after a flood or hurricane.

  • 5 gal. bucket with reseal able lid
  • Bleach ½ gal.
  • Scrub brush
  • Cleaning towels, 18 each
  • Sponges, assorted size-7 pack
  • Laundry detergent, 1kg.
  • Household cleaner, 1 litre.
  • Clothes pins (50)
  • Clothesline, 100ft.x3/16
  • Dust masks, 5 packs
  • Work gloves, 1 pr.
  • Trash bags, 24 bg. roll
  • Insect repellant, 1 kg
  • Air freshener, 1 tube.

Please purchase all liquids in plastic bottles. Be sure to send all new materials that are unopened when they are sealed or in packages. Put all items in the plastic bucket and seal lid.

Disaster Mitigation & Emergency Preparedness

Emergency preparedness is crucial for coming out from disasters with least damage. Just the knowledge of what to do, may help save lives of you and your family. Here are collection of studies and links of documentation related to disasters preparedness also as per the type of disaster. Besides these, links to resources for forecasting disasters are also provided here. The source of the reference is also given along with them.

Trauma Management

Disaster stress may revive memories of prior trauma, as well as possibly intensifying pre-existing social, economic, spiritual, psychological, or medical problems. Trauma management is crucial and rescue workers as well as family members should prepare themselves to handle trauma hit members in the family.

Disaster Preparedness

Preparedness Questionnaire, ask yourself how prepared you are in the event of a disaster or what do you need. This is a step towards getting yourself ready to meet eventualities which might save your, your family’s life in the event of disasters. Also, you may be able to help your community to come out better during disasters. After going through this questionnaire explore resources listed above for preparedness in event of disasters as mentioned.

  1. Do you think that your family is relatively well-prepared for a disaster such as an earthquake, tornado, cyclones, winter storm, fire, flood and other such incidents?

This small step to understand and equip yourself about knowledge related to disaster preparedness would help you come out from a disaster unscathed. Your well-prepared family could help save the lives of others, not just yourselves.

  1. Do you believe that the community you live in is relatively well- prepared for a disaster?

Do you know about your community /District, Disaster Management Plan? Is there any source of community Information system that you know of? Are you aware of any source of information to prepare yourself for disasters?

Has your District / State DMA (Disaster Management Authority) coordinator worked with local hospitals, nursing homes, day care centers, shopping malls, schools, etc. to make sure they have a plan for what to do during an emergency?

  1. Have you discussed disaster preparedness with your family?

If you have a plan of what you will do during a disaster but you haven’t shared it with your family ahead of time, your plan may not work! Each family member needs to know how to phone for help, escape out of the house, and seek safe shelter in the house. Each family member needs to know how to be safe when they are out of the home (at work, school, play). Each family member needs to know how the family plans to reunite if it becomes impossible to return to the home.

  1. Do all members of your family know how to call for help?

If you have kids, do they know how to phone for help? Do they know to dial 100 (if it is available where you live)? If you don’t have 100, do you have the number of the Police, Fire, Ambulance, responsible friend/relative, etc. near the phone? Do your kids know what sort of information they will need to give over the phone (i.e., the address of the home, their last name, etc.)? Do they know to phone from outside of the house if the house is on fire? Do they know to stay off the phone during an electrical storm?

  1. Have you conducted a home hazard hunt and fixed potential hazards?

Many disasters at home can be averted with a simple hazard hunt. Is the home fire-safe – no frayed electrical cords, no overloaded outlets, working smoke detectors, if any, working carbon monoxide detectors, no flammable liquids near sources of heat or flames? Are working fire extinguishers easily available? Is the home earthquake safe–no unsecured heavy objects (mirrors, bookshelves, etc.), the water heater bolted to the wall? If there is a water tank on the top of the house, then how much water should be stored in earthquake prone zones?

  1. Do you have a Family Disaster Supply Kit?

In your supply kit you will need ALL of the things it will take to survive 72 hours. This will include food and water of course, but also medicines, blankets, flashlights, etc. Even if you don’t put together an actual kit (although we encourage you to do so), think about having at least enough food, water and medicine at home with you to last 72 hours.

  1. Do you have a Disaster Supply Kit for each car?

A small box in the trunk of your car, other vehicle with blankets, a first-aid kit, cash, food, flashlight, radio, etc. could literally mean the difference between life and death. Every car should have a kit (at least a first aid kit). You might want to change the contents of the kit for the different seasons of the year.

  1. Are you trained in First-Aid (within the last 3 years)?

Basic first-aid, for example how to stop bleeding by applying pressure, can be crucial, even lifesaving knowledge. First-aid courses are often offered by and local hospitals and charitable hospital for nominal charges. Think how happy you (and the victim) will be if you are able to make use of current training in an emergency situation.

  1. Are all responsible family members current in First-Aid?

Unfortunately, there is the possibility that YOU might be the victim! Does everyone in your family know basic first-aid?

  1. Are you current in CPR (trained in the last 3 years)?

CPR – Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation is a simple technique that has saved many folks who would have otherwise been choking, drowning, smoke inhalation, or heart attack victims. When you think about a few hours of training saving a loved one’s life, isn’t it worth it?

  1. Are all responsible family members current in CPR?

Again, there is the possibility that YOU might be the victim! Or, you might not be home when the incident occurs. Be sure that everyone in your family is trained.

  1. Do you have operational smoke detectors and carbon monoxide detectors?

Having a smoke detector and/or a carbon monoxide detector in your home is NOT good enough! You need to make sure they are operational, that is, they must have working batteries. An operational smoke detector more than doubles your chance of escaping from your home alive. Two good rules of thumb are check your detectors once a month (pick a day of the month, say the 1st, and make a habit of checking the detectors every month on the 1st); when you change your clock for daylight savings/standard time, change the batteries of detectors too.

  1. Do you have a charged ABC fire extinguisher?

There are three basic classes of fires. All fire extinguishers are labeled using standard symbols for the classes of fires they can put out. A red slash through any of the symbols tells you the extinguisher cannot be used on that class of fire. A missing symbol tells you only that the extinguisher has not been tested for a given class of fire.

Class A: Ordinary combustibles such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber and many plastics.

Class B: Flammable liquids such as gasoline, oil, grease, tar, oil-based paint, lacquer, and flammable gas.

Class C: Energized electrical equipment – including wiring, fuse boxes, circuit breakers, machinery, and appliances

Many household fire extinguishers are “multipurpose” A-B-C models, labeled for use on all three classes of fire. If you are ever faced with a Class A fire and don’t have an extinguisher with an “A” symbol, don’t hesitate to use one with the “B:C” symbol.

WARNING: It is very dangerous to use water or an extinguisher labeled only for Class A fires on a Class B or Class C fire.

  1. Do you know how to use the fire extinguisher?

Using a fire extinguisher is not completely straightforward and the time to learn how to operate one is NOT during a fire. Follow the four-step PASS procedure. Pull the pin: This unlocks the operating lever and allows you to discharge the extinguisher. Aim low: Point the extinguisher nozzle (or hose) at the base of the fire. Squeeze the lever above the handle: This discharges the extinguishing agent. (Some extinguishers have a button instead of a lever.) Sweep from side-to-side: Moving carefully toward the fire, keep the extinguisher aimed at the base of the fire and sweep back and forth until the flames appear to be out. A good practice might be to purchase two fire extinguishers–one to keep and one to let each family member practice on.

  1. Do you know how to turn off all utilities (gas, electricity, water, etc.)?

For a variety of reasons, it may be necessary to turn off the utilities in your home. Do you know where the water main is? Do you know where the circuit breaker box or main switch is? Does everyone in your family know NOT to turn off the electricity if you have to stand in water to do so?

  1. Do you know where your family records are?

If your house burned down today would your insurance papers, household inventory, receipts, other important papers etc. burn too? A great place to keep your valuable papers (marriage certificate, birth certificates, passports, insurance papers, household inventory, etc.) is in a safe deposit box. It is probably not wise to keep your will in a safe deposit box though. A will is best kept with your lawyer or a close friend (if you die it will become difficult for others to access your safe deposit box, making it difficult for them to find your will).

  1. Do you know where your family will meet outside your home in case of an emergency?

If your family is separated during an emergency you should have two contingency plans in place. The first plan should be a place to meet near your home (such as across the street at a neighbor’s) if the emergency is something like your house burning down. The second plan should be a place to meet in your community, away from your home, (such as a local business or friend’s house) if the emergency is something like your neighborhood being evacuated. By knowing ahead of time where to rendezvous, family members can avoid needlessly worrying about members that are fine and concentrate on family members that are unaccounted for.

  1. Do you know at least two exits from every room in your house in case of a fire?

Most rooms have a door and a window. If the window is a second story window, do you have a way to escape safely (i.e., a fire ladder)?

  1. Have you practiced an emergency drill in your home within the past year?

Drills are a terrific way of making sure that everyone in the family (kids and adults) understands and has the physical/mental ability to carry out the plan your family has developed. If kids get confused about whether to stay inside or leave the house during a fire for example, the time to get them straight about it is BEFORE anything happens.

  1. Do you have an out-of-area phone contact?

Believe it or not, long distance phone calls are often easier to make immediately following a disaster than are local phone calls. Does everyone in your family knows to phone the contact to inform about their safety.

  1. Do you know about disaster plans at your workplace, at your children’s school or day care, etc.?

Few of us spend 100 percent of our time at home, so we need to know about the disaster plans at the other places we (and our loved ones) spend time. Be sure that you know what the plan is and that it is a sound plan.

  1. Can you list the actual cash value of EVERY item in your home?

You may be asked to create such a list after a fire, cyclone or flood! Obviously, a wise choice is to make that list (often times called a household inventory) well before a disaster occurs. A household inventory can provide you with some excellent information for deciding how much insurance to purchase as well.

  1. Some family members have special needs, for example the elderly, mobility impaired or sick. Do you have a plan for making sure these members will be safe during a disaster?

Check your family disaster plan and make sure it will work for everyone. For example, if the family plan is to seek shelter in the basement or community shelter during a cyclone warning, be sure everyone in the family is able to negotiate the stairs to the basement/shelter. If some members are unable to go to the basement/shelter, make sure you have a second plan in place for them (i.e., seek shelter in an interior room, under a heavy piece of furniture).

  1. Do you have a plan for your pets?

A simple sign on your door, alerting the fire department to the fact that you have pets inside, could save your pets’ lives. Bringing a pet to a temporary shelter may pose health risks that the local shelter may not be willing to cope with. It’s a good idea to arrange for a place ahead of time (maybe a friend or relative) where your pets could stay temporarily in case of an emergency.

  • There are lots of places to go for more information about disaster preparation and planning:

Rescue International:

Formed in 1985 Rescue International (RI) is a nonprofit organization of people and companies that provide special search, rescue, and recovery services and products to requesting agencies free of charge. RI’s educational programs are based on a foundation of experienced instructors teaching students skills and providing information derived from hands on experience and backed up with a written program guide and/or manual.

RESCUE Training Resource and Guide:

Free rescue training site with a wealth of information including reference articles, online quiz’s, links database, photo galleries, slideshows and much more. Created by a volunteer rescuer in Australia.

EPIX – Emergency Preparedness Information exchange:

The purpose of EPIX is to facilitate the exchange of ideas and information among Canadian and international public and private sector organizations about the prevention of, preparation for, recovery from and/or mitigation of risk associated with natural and socio-technological disasters.

Search and Rescue Institute:

The Search and Rescue Institute offers search and rescue, first aid and disaster preparedness and operations training.

Stanford University Disaster Preparedness & Response:

Disaster preparedness and response resources from various parts of the world with things organized by organization/author, disaster plans, bibliographic resources, etc. Very useful links to a lot of information.

Safety for Everyone: Natural Disasters

This is a very useful instructional website on the basics of safety associated with day-to-day life scenes such as at home, or on the road, industry, office, etc. with a special page on natural disaster. Although very fundamental, sometimes people lack even the most fundamental knowledge and hence this website can be very handy to teach kids and adults.

Mitigation and improvement strategies

The development of mitigation strategies should flow from the risk management process with clear links to functional lead agencies, as identified in the SDMP, to ensure each risk and strategy is coordinated and managed by the responsible agency.

Prevention and mitigation strategies should be based on the risk assessment and can be considered in relation to:

  • land use planning and building codes
  • essential infrastructure
  • structural works
  • landscape and environment.

Examples of mitigation strategies include:

  • hazard specific control activities such as flood levees or bushfire mitigation strategies
  • design improvements to infrastructure or services
  • land use planning and design decisions that avoid developments and community infrastructure in areas prone to hazards
  • community awareness campaigns to increase knowledge of how to prepare for disaster events
  • community education programs to build knowledge of the appropriate actions to prepare for and respond to a disaster event
  • capital works such as levee bank construction to reduce the impacts of flooding
  • resilience activities including partnership building and engagement between sectors
  • annual programs (e.g. vegetation management around essential services and essential infrastructure such as power lines).

The concept of betterment, often considered predominantly within post-disaster recovery and reconstruction, should also form a key consideration pre-disaster through proactive mitigation strategies which aim to enhance and harden infrastructure to a more disaster resilient standard.

Land use planning and building codes

Land use planning can be an effective method to reduce the impact of natural hazards and, where possible, avoid risk to life, property and environmental systems from natural hazards.

The State Planning Policy (SPP) is a key component of Queensland’s planning system. The SPP expresses the state’s interests in land use planning and development, including the avoidance or mitigation of the risks associated with natural hazards. Promoting this avoidance or mitigation through plan making and development decisions of state and local government can significantly reduce the likelihood and severity of impacts of certain natural hazards including flood, bushfire, landslide, storm tide inundation and coastal erosion.

Essential Infrastructure

A community’s social and economic wellbeing relies upon the continuity of essential services provided by critical infrastructure. This critical infrastructure supports the most basic needs: safe drinking water, food, reliable transport, accessible public health services, energy for homes and industry, access to banking, finance and government services, and communications networks to connect us socially and in business.

Critical infrastructure includes those physical facilities, supply chains, systems, assets, information technologies and communication networks which, if destroyed, degraded or rendered unavailable for an extended period, would significantly affect the social or economic wellbeing of the community.

The importance of the reliability of this infrastructure highlights the need to build and strengthen its resilience. The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) describes resilience as the ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions.

Mitigating the effects of disaster events and ensuring the reliability of essential services and infrastructure requires a variety of strategies including compliance with building planning regulations, land use planning and an all hazards approach to risk identification and management.

Strong networks between infrastructure owner/operators, local and state government agencies and communities are key for critical infrastructure resilience.

Structural Works

Structural disaster mitigation strategies involve the application of engineered solutions as disaster mitigation strategies including physical structures which are constructed or modified to reduce or eliminate disaster impacts.

Structural works to mitigate natural hazards can include but are not limited to levees, rock walls, drainage works, improved road infrastructure and flood mitigation dams. Where structural mitigation strategies are implemented, asset owners need to consider funding to support ongoing operation and maintenance. The community should also be educated on the limits of structural mitigation works and the appropriate action required should breaches occur.

The application of structural works as a form of mitigation is not necessarily the most cost-effective approach and may transfer the problem. Therefore, structural works form one option in a suite of mitigation strategies including natural landscape and environmental approaches.

Landscape and environment

The appropriate management and protection of landscapes and the environment is important. All organizations, including governments at all levels, must consider the effects of development relative to the landscape and environment.

Climate change predictions should be considered when planning for mitigation of natural hazards. Climate change is predicted to influence the magnitude, frequency and severity of natural disaster events including increasing sea levels, intensity of cyclones and storms and other changes to weather patterns. In Queensland, low lying coastal areas and associated coastal environments and landscapes will be most vulnerable to the impacts of these hazards.

Assessment of coastal based development is undertaken to ensure development protects and conserves coastal resources. This also enhances the resilience of coastal communities.