Normally, vulnerability is lack of capacity, weakness or gap.

Vulnerability is a condition resulting from physical, social, economic and environmental factors or process which increase the susceptibility of an individual or community to the impact of any hazard.


The diminished capacity of an individual or community to anticipate, cope with, resist or recover from the impact of hazard.

It is opposite of capacity. If capacity decrease of an individual or community it increases more vulnerable conditions of that individual or community.


  • Poor design or construction of a building.
  • Inadequate protection of asset.
  • Lack of public information and awareness.
  • Limited official recognition of risk and limited mitigation and preparedness measures.
  • Disregard of environment protection.

Types of Vulnerability

There are four (4) major types of vulnerability. These are,

  1. Physical Vulnerability.


  • Population density level.
  • Poor design of building.


  1. Social Vulnerability


  • Inability of people.
  • Lack of social education.
  • Ideological impact.


  1. Economic Vulnerability


  • Settlement in dangerous house.
  • Lack of economic system.
  • Risky livelihood pattern.


  1. Environmental Vulnerability


  • Industrial pollution.
  • Air pollution.
  • Water pollution.

Natural resource depletion and resource degradation are key aspect of environmental vulnerability.